The Model 5402 Dante Leader Clock with GNSS Synchronization provides precise timing signals for applications that utilize the Dante audio-over-IP (AoIP) media networking technology. The unit implements a high-performance IEEE® 1588 precision time protocol (PTP) server, compatible with the requirements of Dante and capable of simultaneously supporting the timing needs of up to hundreds of Dante-compatible devices. As expected, the Model 5402 provides the PTPv1 (IEEE 1588-2002) compatibility that's required by Dante. In addition, the unit supports PTPv2 (IEEE 1588-2008) for AES67 applications. The unit includes an integrated GNSS (satellite) receiver to allow a precise timing reference to be acquired from the four major constellations: GPS, Galileo, BeiDou, and GLONASS. A multi-band GNSS antenna is included with each Model 5402.
In addition, a sync input connection allows the Model 5402's internal oscillator to be synchronized with a variety of external timing and reference signals. A word clock output provides a general-purpose timing reference for use by external devices.
The Model 5402 integrates with the Dante Domain Manager™ (DDM) software application. With DDM, support for ST 2110 and AES67 can take place alongside Dante audio. And with multiple Model 5402 units all utilizing GNSS-based timing, studios across town or even around the globe can share audio.
As an additional resource, the Model 5402 generates eight sine wave audio tones on Dante transmitter (output) channels. These can be useful during audio and data network installation, maintenance, and operation.
The Model 5402 is suitable for use in fixed and mobile broadcast facilities, post-production studios, commercial and educational theater environments, and entertainment applications. Only power, a GNSS antenna, and one, two, or three Ethernet network connections are required for full operation. Using Dante's inherent capabilities two Model 5402 units can serve in primary and backup Leader clock roles for redundant operation.
The unit's three Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) network interfaces can be configured for use in a range of network implementations. For high-reliability audio applications two of the interfaces can support redundant Dante operation while the third can be used for accessing the management webpages.
An integrated web server allows fast and flexible monitoring and configuration of the unit's networking, clocking, and Dante performance. Front-panel LED indicators, an LCD display, and pushbutton switches provide users with direct access to key operating parameters.
The Model 5402 can be powered by 100-240 V, 50/60 Hz mains or a source of 12 volts DC. Both can be simultaneously connected to provide redundant operation. The lightweight enclosure mounts in one space (1U) of a 19-inch equipment rack. Industry-standard connectors are used for Ethernet, GNSS antenna, DC power, and AC mains interconnections. Updating the Model 5402's operating software can be easily performed using a USB flash drive.
Applications for the Model 5402 include broadcast and post-production facilities, college and university audio networks, arenas, stadiums, corporate installations, and virtually any application where substantial numbers of Dante-compatible devices are utilized. The Model 5402 will serve as a stable and consistent Leader clock for the entire Dante "network." And, as expected, the Model 5402 is compatible with all Dante devices, no matter what their function or whom their manufacturer. Applications that utilize devices compatible with AES67 will also benefit from the Model 5402's resources. With its ability to "lock" to a satellite-based time standard, multiple Model 5402 units can be deployed literally "around the world" and maintain synchronized PTP performance.
Why a Dedicated Dante Leader Clock?
With Dante ubiquitous in fixed and mobile facilities of all sizes and types, the need arose for a cost-effective, purpose-designed, dedicated Leader clock. While an inherent strength of Dante networking is its carefully implemented use of the IEEE 1588 standard to ensure that all connected devices maintain a common timing reference, the actual performance can vary widely depending on the specific Dante devices in use and the overall number of devices on a network. There are many Dante-compatible devices that can provide adequate basic performance as a Leader clock, but with the Model 5402 networked audio systems get the benefits of a high-performance Primary Leader Clock, along with additional unique capabilities. The unit's feature set, along with the associated internal hardware and software, was designed to provide optimum performance, flexibility, and system integrity.
The Model 5402 can provide excellent Leader clock performance using a timing reference that is based on signals provided by one or more GNSS (satellite) constellations. This will ensure accuracy and stability that exceeds the capability of standard Dante devices by at least an order of magnitude. A configuration choice is provided in a Model 5402 webpage to allow a failover source of timing to be selected should a valid GNSS signal become unavailable.
The Model 5402 will also provide strong Leader clock performance using its temperature-stabilized internal oscillator. While its standalone performance is excellent, it can also be "locked" to a variety of external signals for integration into facilities that already include a central or main timing reference. Compatible signals include word clock, video reference, and 10 MHz. Word clock is a square wave signal that is often used as a timing reference in audio-only facilities. Video reference ("sync") signals are found in most broadcast and post-production facilities. The Model 5402 supports the most-common video format/rate combinations including "black burst," bi- and tri-level HD, and several that are specifically intended for 4K applications. Industrial and commercial facilities often utilize a source of 10 MHz sine wave as a timing reference.
The Model 5402's internal time base can be synchronized to signals received from satellite-based timing systems. Most often referred to as "GPS," satellite-based time and position data is more properly identified as being received from a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). GPS (Global Positioning System) is just one set of satellites that can provide GNSS data. For maximum flexibility the Model 5402 contains an integral receiver that is compatible with the four major worldwide GNSS constellations: GPS (USA), Galileo (Europe), BeiDou (China), and GLONASS (Russia). In addition, the unit allows augmentation support for GPS as provided by QZSS (Japan). Configuration choices allow which constellations will be utilized by the Model 5402. This can range from one to all four constellations. Using these capabilities, the Model 5402 can achieve single-digit nanosecond timing accuracy. Multiple, geographically disbursed sites ("network nodes") can each use a Model 5402 to easily achieve a coordinated timing reference.
For general-purpose use the Model 5402's GNSS receiver will also report, by way of the front-panel display and/or the management webpages, the current date and time of day, as well as longitude and latitude parameters. In addition, the number of satellites currently "fixed" (locked) and the receiver input power can also be observed.
An active, multi-band, high-precision antenna is included with each Model 5402. The compact antenna is weather-resistant and includes a 5-meter (16.3 foot) cable with attached SMA plug. The antenna can be secured to the selected location using two machine screws or affixed magnetically to a metallic surface. Its performance is very good and many applications will find this antenna to be sufficient. But it's expected that alternate, installer-provided antennas may also be utilized to meet the specific needs of various applications. This may involve supporting longer interface cables, using different mounting methods, or providing more-advanced weather-resistant properties.
Word Clock Output
The Model 5402 generates a precise word clock output signal that can be used as a timing reference for related equipment. It's specifically intended for "locking" digital audio devices in applications that use the Model 5402 to provide timing reference signals for the associated Dante equipment. In this way, all devices in an installation will share a common timing reference.
The word clock output rate can be 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4, or 192 kHz. The underlying timing source for the word clock output is derived from the Model 5402's main timing source. This will typically be one or more of the supported GNSS constellations. The main timing source is divided and processed by the Model 5402's logic circuitry to create the highly stable word clock output. This ensures that the word clock output is synchronized with the unit's PTPv1 and PTPv2 server functionality.
Audio Tone Generator
The Model 5402 generates eight sine wave audio tones intended for general-purpose use. These audio tones are provided by the Model 5402 in the form of Dante transmitter (output) channels. They can be connected, using the Dante Controller application, to Dante receivers (inputs) on related equipment. The flexibility of being able to interconnect signals (create Dante "subscriptions") between all Dante devices on a network allows the audio tones to be used for a variety of purposes. Configuration choices allow the frequency and level of each sine wave tone to be optimized for use in specific applications.
Leader Clock Support for Dante Networks
A core part of the technology underlying Dante audio-over-IP networking ensures that all connected devices follow a common timing reference. This is accomplished using the IEEE 1588-2002 (PTPv1) and 1588-2008 (PTPv2) precision time protocols. Any connected Dante device can be used as a Leader clock; there is no requirement that a dedicated Leader clock device be utilized to realize adequate functionality. However, the actual performance can vary widely depending on the specific Dante devices available and the overall number of Dante devices on a network.
Many Dante devices utilize the 2- or 4-channel Ultimo™ ULT or UXT integrated circuits to implement Dante connectivity. While Ultimo devices will fully support Dante audio transport, they are not well suited to serve as a Leader clock. Ultimo's PTP performance is limited and does not have the ability to synchronize with an external timing reference. Other Dante devices may use the Brooklyn II module or Broadway integrated circuit to support Dante connectivity. In some cases, these devices can provide good basic performance as a Leader clock.
However, problems and limitations may arise when these devices are called upon to perform "double duty," serving in both a primary function (such as analog-to-Dante interfacing or audio signal processing) as well as acting as a Leader clock. This is understandable as the main purpose of these devices is to serve functions other than acting as a primary synchronization reference. Specialized features, such as allowing a GNSS-derived time base are rarely, if ever, supported. PTP performance can degrade when the computing power of a device is intended primarily for handling and manipulating digital audio signals. This can lead to the required PTP resources being in short supply when the number of Dante devices that need timing messages moves into the hundreds. Also, firmware updates, cabling changes, and other maintenance tasks typically associated with a general-purpose Dante device would impact the Leader clock functionality for an entire installation.
The Model 5402 was specifically designed to support a Dante-based audio or video system's Leader clock requirement. By utilizing GNSS, multiple Model 5402 units can be installed at independent locations while sharing a common timing reference. The unit's generation of audio tones and implementation of the word clock output utilize hardware circuitry that is separate from that associated with its PTP functionality. As such, this secondary functionality will not interfere with PTP operation. Unlike general-purpose Dante devices, once mounted in an equipment rack and the required interconnections made, the Model 5402 will perform its tasks without risk of interruption due to conflicting resource demands.
Flexible Networking Capability
Using the Dante Controller application program, the Model 5402's three Ethernet ports can be selected to operate in one of four modes: Switched, Redundant, Switched+Mgmt, and Redundant+Mgmt. This should allow virtually any desired networking implementation to be easily achieved.
By using the Switched or Redundant network modes, separate network connections will be maintained for Dante audio and management purposes.
In the Switched mode a single Ethernet connection to either of the Model 5402's two Dante Ethernet ports will provide Dante Leader clock functionality. The remaining Dante Ethernet port will provide Dante network "loop-through" capability and can be used to interface with another piece of Ethernet-connected equipment. The management Ethernet port will be used to access the Model 5402's monitoring and configuration webpages.
In the Redundant mode two independent Ethernet connections are made to the Model 5402's two Dante Ethernet ports, enabling Dante's redundant networking capability. Again, the management Ethernet port will be used to access the Model 5402's monitoring and configuration webpages.
In the Switched+Mgmt mode a single Ethernet connection is used for both Dante Leader clock functionality as well as providing access to the Model 5402's management webpages. The remaining Dante Ethernet port will provide network "loop-through" capability and can be used to interface with another piece of Ethernet-connected equipment.
In the Redundant+Mgmt mode two independent Ethernet connections can be made to the Model 5402's two Dante Ethernet ports. This will enable Leader clock capability for redundant Dante applications. Access to the Model 5402's management webpages will be made by way of the Ethernet connection made to the Dante primary Ethernet port.
The Model 5402 allows an AC mains source of 100-240 V, 50/60 Hz to be directly connected. It can also be DC powered using a 10-18 volt source that is connected via a broadcast-standard 4-pin XLR connector. If both AC and DC power sources are connected the unit will be powered by the AC mains supply. Only if the AC mains source fails will appreciable power be drawn from the DC source. This allows a source of DC, typically an external power supply, to serve in a backup capacity. With this arrangement normal operation can continue even if AC mains power is lost.
The Model 5402 was designed so that its capabilities can be enhanced in the future. A USB receptacle, located on the unit's back panel, allows the three firmware files (embedded software) to be updated using a USB flash drive. The Model 5402's Dante firmware can be updated using one of the unit's Ethernet connections, helping to ensure that the Dante capabilities remain up to date. All software files and configuration parameters are stored in non-volatile memory.